The Mughal Rulers from 1526-1707

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The House of Timur moved to India: Babur established the Timurid Dynasty in India in 1526 which is known as the Mughal empire (1526-1857). Babur was sixth in descent from Timur, while his mother was descendant of Chengiz Khan.

Babur, the first Mughal Emperor (1526-1530)
Meaning The Tiger
Full Name Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
Born 14 February 1483 at Andijan, Uzbekistan
Significance Established the Mughal Empire in 1526
Conquests 1st Battle of Panipat (1526)Battle of Khanwa (1527)Battle of Ghagra (1529)
Parents Umar Shaikh Mirza and Kutluk Nigar Khanum
Wives
Maham Begum, Aisha Sultan Begum, Zeineb Sultan Begum, Maasumeh Sultan Begum, Bibi Mubarika, Dildar Begum, Gulrukh Begum, Gulnar Agha Begum, Raiqah Begum
Sons Humayun, Kamran (by Gulrukh Begum), Askari (by Gulrukh Begum) and Hindal (by Dildar Begum)
Daughters Gulrang, Gulchihra, Gulbadan (three daughters by Dildar Begum) and Gulrukh or Gulbarg
Successor Humayun
Died 26 December 1530 at Agra
Burial Bagh-e-Babur at Kabul, Afghanistan (Outside India)
Autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi
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Facts About Taj Mahal

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Built in white marble, the Mausoleum of Mumtaz Mahal, popularly known as the Taj Mahal, located on the banks of Yamuna River in the city of Aga, Uttar Pradesh, India, is the most beautiful tomb on Earth and one of the Seven Wonders of the World. In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Mausoleum of Mumtaz Mahal

Who Was the Rajput Wife of Mughal Emperor Akbar?

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You history lovers must have seen the 2008 movie Jodha Akbar, starring Hrithik Roshan and Aishwarya Rai. People think that Jodha (that's not her real name) was the only wife of Emperor Akbar and he loved her very much. I could find some interesting questions on Answers.com, like; "How did Akbar met Jodha Bai", "How many children did Jodha and Akbar have" and the list goes on. This post is about Akbar's wives.

Akbar's Wives:

Ruqayyah Begum was the first wife of Akbar. She was the daughter of Hindal, a younger brother of Humayun, and the granddaughter of Babur. She had no children.

Jalalat al-Din Radiyya (Raziyya): The Slave Empress of India

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Sultan Shams al-Din Iltutmish (1211-1236) was the greatest ruler of Slave dynasty. Iltutmish's eldest and most capable son, Nasir al-Din Mahmud, had died prematurely (1229); rest of his sons were incompetent. Iltutmish nominated his capable daughter Raziyya to be his successor. He discerned in her countenance the signs of power and bravery, "My sons are devoted to the pleasures of youth, and no one of them is qualified to be king. They are unfit to rule the country, and after my death you will find that there is no one more competent to guide the State than my daughter", the Sultan said. However, the nobles of the court did not like the idea of being ruled by a woman, and upon the death of Iltutmish in 1236, his eldest surviving son Rukn al-Din Firuz was placed on the throne. Rukn al-Din was a pleasure-loving King who left the affairs of the government to his mother, Shah Turkan. Shah Turkan used her authority to ill treat the ladies of Iltutmish’s harem; She murdered Qutb al-Din, the infant son of Iltutmish. Soon rebellion occurred in many parts of the country and the wazir Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi also joined the rebels. Rukn al-Din marched from Delhi to suppress the rebellions. When Shah Turkan made an attempt to assassinate Raziyya, the people of Delhi rose in her defense. Shah Turkan was imprisoned, and Raziyya was raised to the throne (Nov 1236). Hearing this, Rukn al-Din hastened to Delhi, but he was captured by Raziyya's army. He died in confinement, after a reign of seven months.

Sher Shah Suri: The Lion King of India

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From Farid Khan to Sher Shah:

It was during the reign of Sultan Bahlol Lodi, that Ibrahim Khan Sur, grandfather of Farid Khan, came to India from Afghanistan. During the reign of Sikandar Lodi (son of Sultan Bahlol Lodi), Jamal Khan, the governor of Jaunpur, gave Ibrahim's son Hasan Khan, the Jagirs of Sasaram and Khwaspur in Bihar. Farid was born in the reign of Sultan Bahlol. The boy Farid was driven away from home by the maltreatment of his step mother. Farid went to his father's patron, Jamal Khan and learned Arabic and Persian literature and history at Jaunpur. Being pleased with his talent, Farid was appointed by his father to administer the Jagirs of Sasaram and Khwaspur (1515). Farid managed the estate with great ability and in a very short time, the parganas became prosperous. His step mother became jealous of him and wanted Hasan to transfer the Jagirs in the name of her son, Suleiman. Due to influence of Suleiman's mother, Hasan was compelled to dismiss Farid and appointed Suleiman to manage the Jagirs (1520). Farid went to Agra and entered into the service of Daulat Khan, one of the Amirs at the court of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi. On the death of his father in 1525, Ibrahim Lodi conferred him the Jagir of his father. Suleiman, unable to oppose him, went to Muhammad Khan Sur, the governor of Chaundh, for protection. (Muhammad Sur desired that the brothers should quarrel and destroy themselves, and finally occupy the Jagir himself) Since Farid refused to divide the parganas between him and Suleiman, Muhammad Sur was preparing to take them by force. To counter this, Farid decided to join the service of Bahar Khan Nuhani, the governor of Bihar. By this time, Babur defeated Sultan Ibrahim Lodi and established the Mughal Empire (1526).